The difference between Invasive and Non-Invasive AngiographyBerlin Diagnostics
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are emerging as one of the leading causes of death globally, resulting in nearly 17.9 million deaths annually. CVDs are a broad name given to a group of diseases related to the heart and blood vessels, including coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and rheumatic heart disease, among other conditions. More than 80 percent of deaths caused by CVD come down to heart attacks and strokes, with one-third of this mortality rate occurring in people less than 70 years old. However, in recent years, with the fast-paced changes in our lifestyles, these diseases have become more prevalent in younger age groups as well.
Given the rise of CVDs and CADs (coronary artery diseases), the role of Coronary Angiography has become very significant. Coronary Angiography is a procedure used to detect any blockages caused by plaque build-up in the coronary arteries in the patient’s body. The two types of Coronary Angiography are Invasive Angiography and Non- Invasive Angiography.
Blockages tend to prevent your heart from getting oxygen and other important nutrients. Thus, it is critical to detect heart blockages since they can lead to chest pain or a heart attack. Coronary angiography is used to diagnose ischemic heart disease after chest pain, sudden cardiac arrest, or if an electrocardiogram (ECG) of the heart or an exercise stress test throws up unusual results.
Let’s deep dive into the world of Angiography:
What is Invasive Angiography and Non-Invasive Angiography?
Invasive Angiography, aka Cardiac catheterisation, has been the most common and widespread method to determine the presence, location, and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). This technique provides spatial and temporal resolution for visualising the coronary arterial tree for catheter-based or surgical interventions.
During an Invasive Angiography, a small incision is made on the wrist or the patient’s groin, and a small plastic pipe is placed under local anaesthetic. A catheter (plastic pipe) is then directed to the patient’s heart. Next, a dye is injected through the catheter, making it easy to see on x-ray images. As the dye moves through the blood vessels, the medical professional can observe the flow and easily identify blockages.
However, in recent times, the use of Non-Invasive Angiography imaging has been rapidly evolving. As a result, multi-detector cardiac computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are fast becoming the preferred method to diagnose coronary artery disease.
Originally used for research purposes, they are now commonly used in clinical practice, especially in cases where direct imaging of the coronary vasculature is required. A Non-Invasive Angiography is done by injecting a dye in hand and imaging the heart’s blood vessels simultaneously using an advanced CT scan machine.
When to opt for Invasive Angiography?
Your doctor may recommend an Invasive Angiography if you have any of the following:
- Symptoms of coronary artery disease
- Pain in your arm, jaw, chest or neck
- Recent chest pains or those that have increased
- Abnormal results when undergoing a heart stress test
- A heart defect from childbirth
- A heart valve-related issue that may require surgery
An Invasive Angiography is helpful to:
- Determine how many of your coronary arteries are blocked
- Pinpoint the location of the blockages
- Show the extent that blood flow is blocked through blood vessels
- Check previous coronary bypass surgery
When to opt for Non-Invasive Angiography?
Non- Invasive Angiography is the best option for the patients if you have the following:
- High-risk factors of heart disease
- Evaluation of coronary anomalies
- Assessment of Cardiac neoplasm
- As a follow-up post-CABG (Coronary artery bypass graft )
- To detect Congenital heart disease
- Asymptomatic patient with a family history of coronary artery disease
- Diagnosis of pericardial disease
- It is useful in early detection and screening of the CAD rather than undergoing an invasive test.
Invasive v/s Non-Invasive Angiography
|Invasive Angiography||Non-Invasive Angiography|
|Methodology||A small incision is made on the wrist or the groin, and a small plastic pipe is placed under local anaesthetic. |
A catheter (plastic pipe) is directed to the patient’s heart. A dye is then injected through the catheter, which makes it easy to see on x-ray images. As the dye moves through the blood vessels, the medical professional can observe the flow and easily identify blockages.
|A CT coronary angiogram uses a powerful X-ray machine to produce images of the patient’s heart and post-CABGblood vessels.|
|Cost||Less expensive as compared to Non-Invasive Angiography angiographies||More expensive as compared to invasive angiographies|
|Risks||Although it is a largely safe procedure, there can be some risks with an Invasive Angiography, such as :|
– Heart attack
– Exposure to radiation
– Injury to the catheterised artery
– Irregular heart rhythms
– Allergic reaction to the dye
– Kidney damage
– Excessive bleeding
|There will be some exposure to radiation during the Non-Invasive Angiography Angiography.|
It is also possible that the patient may have an allergic reaction to the dye used in the procedure.
Benefits and Limitations of Non-Invasive Angiography
As the name suggests, one of the biggest benefits of Non-Invasive Angiography angiographies is that they are “Non-Invasive”.
Below are some of the benefits of opting for Non-Invasive Angiography :
- They may eliminate the need for surgery. If surgery is necessary, it can be performed more accurately based on the results of the Non-Invasive Angiography.
- They can detect narrowing or obstruction of blood vessels, which could lead to corrective therapy being done.
- It is faster and has relatively fewer complications.
- There is potentially less discomfort for the patient since the dye is injected into an arm vein.
Listed below are some of the limitations associated with Non- Invasive Angiography are:
- There may be a small chance of excessive radiation exposure. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis usually outweighs the risk.
- Some patients could be allergic to the dye or contrast material used in the procedure.
- In patients who are at risk for kidney failure, injecting them with iodinated contrast material may cause further damage to the kidney functions.
- This procedure is not usually recommended for women who are pregnant.
The Global Burden of Disease study revealed that Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are also the leading cause of death in India, with the CVD death rate amounting to 272 per 100000 population in India, which is much higher than that of the global average of 235. The study also reveals that CVDs strike Indians a decade earlier than the western population due to the early age of onset, rapid progression, and a considerably high mortality rate. This number can be linked to the reversal of socioeconomic gradients such as tobacco use and low intake of fruits and vegetables among people in lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Besides that, people in these strata also are less likely to receive correct and timely diagnosis and treatment, leading to poorer outcomes. This is why there are growing efforts on the prevention, early detection, and treatment of such diseases through conventional and innovative techniques.
Berlin Diagnostics is a part of this effort, a one-stop solution for all the ultramodern services in the health sector in Ranchi, Jharkhand. Call us at 18008913990 or click to book an appointment for Non-Invasive Coronary Angiography today.
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